Hydrogen Production Processes
The impact that Hydrogen will have on decarbonization and its role in the energy transition will depend on how it is produced. In fact, according to the different production processes, the Hydrogen will be classified as follows:
- grey Hydrogen - produced from fossil fuels
- blue Hydrogen - produced from fossil fuels with capture, utilization and storage of carbon dioxide emitted
- green Hydrogen - produced from renewable energies
From grey to green
One of the most important challenges regarding decarbonisation is therefore the transition from grey to green Hydrogen production, in order to meet the targets defined for the EU 2050 strategy. Green Hydrogen is produced from Renewable Energy sources such as wind and solar, following the process of electrolysis, through which, thanks to electricity, water molecules are split into molecules of oxygen and Hydrogen.
If we think that the Dutch industrial sector alone generates 800,000 tons of Hydrogen using the Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) technology, we clearly realize that such production is functional and valuable within the Hydrogen supply chain. However, its generation, as well as the potential capture and storage of CO2 emitted in production, are processes to be re-evaluated in the path of decarbonization.
What are the potentials of Green Hydrogen?
Green Hydrogen, although now represents only 5% of total production, is considered a key element for the energy transition of our economy, because in its various uses and during its life cycle does not generate CO₂ emissions.
According to the report published by IRENA, Green Hydrogen could be key to decarbonize specific sectors of the economy such as energy-intensive industries, the chemical and commercial transportation sectors, as well as aviation and shipping, which are still highly polluting.
In addition, both electrolyzers (the plants that, through electricity, break water molecules into Hydrogen and oxygen) and large fuel cells, harnessing electricity generated from renewables and stored Hydrogen, could add flexibility on the supply and demand side of energy, facilitating the penetration of more wind and photovoltaics into the grid.
In fact, even though renewable energy production has the potential to deliver many benefits, the use of sustainable energy sources such as wind and solar still see significant challenges. For example, their power generation cannot always be used to meet society's fluctuating electricity demands, and with supply and demand not always in balance, the development of new storage solutions is required.
Kiwa Services for Hydrogen production
Kiwa, thanks to the experience gained in the sector and the wide knowledge gained in recent years at national and international level, can support the entire chain of Hydrogen production with the following services:
- Testing, Inspection and Certification of Electrolysers
- Certification of Pressure Equipment (PED)
- Non-destructive testing
- Carbon Footprint Certification according to GHG Protocol
- Verification of conformity according to CSense scheme
- Green Hydrogen Production Systems Energy Engineering - technical and financial due diligence for Hydrogen production processes from renewable sources, with independent evaluations on projects (Kiwa Moroni)
- Pre-assessment and evaluation of projects under development in accordance with international standards and proprietary technical documents